The Mongolian People's Army Aviation drastically improved with Soviet training and vastly ameliorated within a time span of several years. In May 1925, a Junkers F.13 entered service as the first aircraft in Mongolian civil and military-related aviation.
In March 1931, the Soviet Union donated three Polikarpov R-1s to the Mongolian People's Army, with Mongolia further purchasing three R-1s.
In 1932, an uprising broke out against Collectivization, which saw both Soviet and Mongolian-operated R-1s taking part in actions against the rebellion. The aircraft carried out reconnaissance, leaflet dropping, and bombing mission.
Chinese intelligence reports that in 1945 the Mongolian People's Air Force had been with a three-fighter and three-bomber aviation-regiment, and one flight training school and greater air squadrons. It was reported that headquartered in the Mukden Manchukuo spy-section in October 1944 air force whole units had been 180 aircraft and 1231 flight and technical personnel.
The Mongolian People's Army Aviation demonstrated its full potential during the Battle of Khalkhin Gol, which was its largest engagement. Apart from intercepting intruding aircraft, People's Aviation was used heavily to repress domestic rebel movements.
The Mongolian People's Air Force has operated a variety of aircraft types.
Mongolian Arat squadron
The Mongolian Arat squadron was a fighter squadron in the Soviet Air Force, funded by contributions from the Mongolian People's Republic. It was operational during World War II. The Mongolian word "ard" (ард) means "people", but was malapropriated in Russian and other languages as "Arat" (арат) to mean a nomadic pastoralist or herdsman.
In March 1943, following the presentation of the "Revolutionary Mongolia" tank brigade to the Red Army, the Little Khural (parliament) of Mongolia, announced its intention to fund a fighter squadron within the Soviet Air Force. The squadron was given 12 Lavochkin La-5 fighters in a formal ceremony and formed part of the 2nd Guards Fighter Aviation Regiment (ru). Despite its name, the pilots and personnel of the unit were Russian rather than Mongolian.