The Second Philippine Republic was a puppet state established by Japanese invasion forces. The puppet state relied on reformed Bureau of Constabulary and the Makapili militia to fight the local resistance movement and regular troops of the Philippine Commonwealth Army. The president of the republic, José P. Laurel had his own presidential guard unit. When the Americans were closing in the Philippines in 1944, the Japanese began recruiting Filipinos to augment their losses. Most of the Filipino recruits were serving in the Imperial Japanese Army and were fighting actively until Japan's surrender.